Table of Contents Brief Overview The immediate causes of the War of were a series of economic sanctions taken by the British and French against the US as part of the Napoleonic Wars and American outrage at the British practice of impressment, especially after the Chesapeake incident of
This was the last time British Empire allowed privateering. The British restricted the American trade since they feared it was harmful for their war with France and they also wanted to set up an Indian state in the Midwest in order to maintain their influence in the region.
Since Canada was a British colony back then, Canadians were also British allies. The Americans objected to the British Empire restricting their trade and snatching their sailors to serve on British ships. They were also eager to prove their independence from the British Empire once and for all.
Major Events of The War of During the war, both sides suffered many losses and even the White House was burned down in The British were quite defensive in the beginning, since they concentrated their military efforts on Napoleonic Wars but after their victory over France inthey started to fight Americans more aggressively.
American national pride was boosted by the victories in the Battle of Baltimore in and the Battle of New Orleans in The Negotiated End Of the War Of The Treaty of Ghent was finally signed on December 24, and it established the status quo ante bellum, which means that nobody lost any territory in the war.
The war officially ended on February 17, when US Congress ratified the treaty. Their ships laden with sugar, coffee and rum, merchant captains depended on the Royal Navy for aid and protection.
Only odd miles off the dreaded shoals of Cape Hatteras, the Royal Navy captains had to be alert. At the start of the war the United A history of the war of 1812 had only 16 warships more or less ready for sea, and half of those were, at best, rated sloops of war.
Not a single ship larger than a fifth-rate frigate graced the American list. Of those no more than six warships actively blockaded key ports holding American naval vessels. Three early and unexpected victories by American frigates and a plague of merchant losses forced the Admiralty to scrape the bottom of the barrel for additional forces for Warren, more than doubling his strength on station.
Rather than commit these warships to a blockade, Warren concentrated them for a raid into the Chesapeake Bay during the late spring and summer of As that Jamaican convoy slowly cruised up the Carolina coast, no more than 11 ships invested American ports outside the Chesapeake region. Even then the blockaders primarily guarded against the escape of American merchantmen and the warships of the U.
But other, more numerous enemies lurked within American ports. As the sun dipped to leeward, the easterly wind continued to blow across a rapidly darkening sea. In another day or so it would veer to blow from the west and allow the convoy to wear for England.
For now, wind, the dying sun and the falling moonless night boded ill for the convoy. Eighteen miles to windward, topmast crosstrees barely visible above the horizon, a predator bided its time in the gloom, marking potential prizes silhouetted by the setting sun.
As lanterns flickered on distant taffrails and ships shortened sail across the length of that herd of merchantmen none dared sail in convoy at night without such lights to alert the ships around theman American officer briefly flashed a hooded lantern astern where the crews of another schooner and a brig impatiently waited to risk life, limb and spars for a share in plundered riches.
This document allowed a vessel to function as a de facto warship, preying on enemy commerce and selling the captures in prize courts, with the proceeds divided into shares split among owners, investors, officers and crews as specified by contract.
These letters of marque also limited the actions of privateers, lest the line between privateer and pirate wear thin. Privateering was a risky business, and privateers were loved by few who did not benefit directly from their success. Though letters of marque made things legal, by plundering defenseless merchantmen for private gain still seemed little better than theft to the many civilians caught up in the waves of reform and religious revivalism then sweeping the Protestant world.
Oddly enough, both the Royal Navy and the U.
Navy despised their own privateers. Usually, complaints had a patriotic ring—we serve for duty; they serve for profit! Other times the public navies vented their spleen at the competition to employee seamen. After all, who would exchange the easy discipline, lack of risk and better pay offered by a privateer for the harsh life aboard a warship?
In truth, the real thorn of competition was prize money. Both public and private navies shared this bonus plan, but duty escorting merchantmen, blockading and such meant the public navies could not pursue enemy merchantmen with the directness of the privateer. And every ship taken by a privateer meant one less prize for the deserving officers and crews of the public navy.
Little wonder that Lieutenant Henry E.
Must drive her off, as she spoils our cruising ground. With the last glimmer of reflected sunlight but a memory, the American privateers began their steady approach to the straggling convoy.
Loaded cannon, boarding parties and a prize crew rested by the bulwarks while captains and mates carefully tracked the lights of the convoy, especially those of the single frigate guarding its windward flank.
During the War of the American government issued more than letters of marque to captains eager to wield a sword as long as they could edge it with looted gilt against the British maritime fleet.
Thus a bewildering array of hulls, rigs and armaments initially bedeviled the Royal Navy. Many raiders carried only one cannon shots to the hull tended to reduce the value of a capture; damage to the rigging made it difficult for the prize to avoid recapture and small arms.The War of was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June to February The War of which fought between the newly formed United States of America and the British Empire, that changed the face of the continent of North America.
To know more about the history of the War of , read on. The War of The War of Full Program. Special | 1h 53m 13s This documentary shows how the glories of war become enshrined in history. How failures are quickly forgotten and how inconvenient truths are ignored forever.
In the United States declared war against Great Britain (see War of ), and two years later the British invaded the vulnerable capital city, setting fire to federal buildings.
Structural damage was extensive, and the morale of the local citizens sank. Watch video · In the War of , caused by British restrictions on U.S. trade and America’s desire to expand its territory, the United States took on the greatest naval power in the world, Great Britain.
The War of Although its events inspired one of the nation’s most famous patriotic songs, the War of is a relatively little-known war in American history. Despite its complicated causes and inconclusive outcome, the conflict helped establish the credibility of the young United States among other nations.