The basic training for K-9 specialty team officer handlers covers: Also, a sample training and evaluation inventory for use in qualifying K-9 specialty teams is provided in Appendix E. The evaluation inventory is based on the performance objectives developed for K-9 specialty teams.
As there is no prior literature to base this decision upon, the question remains, will this reduce the number of suspects bitten by police dogs? This work attempts to answer this question by asking canine handlers to reveal their bite ratios through an innovative matrix Bite Ratio Data Collectorwhich then became the force measurement.
The results denote a number of findings. Second, additional factors such as dog breed, and Schutzhund training were all significant correlates of canine force in the final model.
Police Dog; Use of Force; Canine; K-9; Less Lethal Introduction Law enforcement agencies frequently use specially trained dogs for a variety of impor- tant purposes to aid in the detection and deterrence of crime.
The primary reason is that dogs are a cost effective means for crime control. These dogs possess skills and abil- ities that frequently exceed that of existing technology. Their use in the past has provided law enforcement with a valuable tool, which if used properly, can improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of policing, all the while serving as an important public relations tool.
However, little empirical research has been conducted regarding police dog deployment as a use of force. His interests include police dog deployments and use of force, lethal weapons, and applied research for law enforcement.
Literature Review Dogs have shared their lives with mankind for the better part of the last 20, years. This research is supported by a recent archeological discovery of a 12,year-old skeleton found cradling the body of a pup Lange, The extant literature on the use of canines in warfare dates as far back as BC Chapman, During World War II, it is estimated thatdogs were used by the participants of both sides in a variety of functions Marders, ; United States Air Force, One military analysis credits scout dogs with saving over 2, American lives during the Vietnam conflict Murray, The legal and practical importance of this study will become self-evident.
Over the past year, the International Association of Chiefs of Police IACP has expressed interest and concern with the use of force by canine handlers and their partners. The next section details the two competing apprehension paradigms of how police canines are trained in this country and details the differences between them.
A number of training tools such as the bungee cord and the shock collar may be used for remedial training for dogs that re-bite inappropriately or fail to release on command. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal Dogs trained in this system engage the suspect under the order of the officer without provocation from the suspect.
The dog remains under voice control at all times and should be operated within line of sight. However, tactical deployments frequently make visual inspection of the dog nearly impossible.
According to EdenA well trained service dog can be recalled at any point from the attack. Control of the dog through voice command permits the officer to call the dog off prior to or subsequent to the apprehension as the situation warrants.
While some argue that canines trained this way represent a less than lethal force option, others say that the use of canines to bite the suspect without giving the suspect a last chance to comply before the canine arrives represents the use of excessive force.
The idea is that the dog delays the suspect until the handler can arrive and make the arrest. Conceptually in this methodology, the dog will bark but will not engage the suspect unless he moves.
Additionally, it has been argued that if a suspect were to disable the dog, the officer is tactically at a disadvantage and the agency is left with the cost of replacing a trained dog MacKenzie, If this training is not adequate, the dog will begin to bite when it is not warranted Eden, As a result of training methods, the dog may also perceive the bite as the reward for appre- hending the suspect.
This will greatly increase the number of inappropriate bites and have exactly the opposite effect sought by the DOJ. This point was clearly made by Eden who stated: If he locates a suspect and the suspect stumbles or moves accidentally, there is a high likelihood of an unwarranted bite.
Canine as a Forceful Intervention Just as the police officer on the street may improperly use a baton or firearm on a suspect, the canine handler may improperly or unknowingly utilize his dog and create unnecessary injury.
Given that a German shepherd can exert a bite force of 1, psi Hutson et al. These injuries range from deep punctures, to large rips and crush damage Hutson et al. Unfortunately, after conducting an exhaustive search of the literature, very few arti- cles could be identified that relate specifically to the use of force with police dogs.
In fact, only two scholarly articles were identified that even addressed the concept of the police dog as an instrument of force. However, black suspects were shown to be at less risk of dog bites than white suspects. Of particular value in this analysis were the odds multipliers from a logistic regression, which identified a number of suspect behaviors that increased the likelihood of being bitten by the police dog.2 Abstract One of the most dynamic areas currently in law enforcement is the canine and its use in police work.
The use of canine units has seemed to catch on in ever major metropolitan department and. IMPLEMENTATION AND EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF A CANINE PROGRAM WITHIN A POLICE DEPARTMENT started using canines several issues have arisen that need to be fully understood, such as training, the canine does not fit in the force continuum.
The Oakland Police Academy has a course titled “Administration of Police K-9 Units”. A. The Impact of Training on Police Canine Force Outcomes. (Murray, ). The legal and practical importance of this study will become self-evident. Over the past year, the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) has expressed interest and concern with the use of force by canine handlers and their partners.
It may be that.
Feb 01, · The use of force with police dogs has caught the attention of both the media and the federal government, specifically the Department of Justice (DOJ).
The DOJ recommendation of interest to this study is the paradigmatic shift from ‘bite and hold’ to ‘bark and hold’ in canine apprehension methods. Paper on Police Dogs 17 12/16/13 Police dogs have become a vital part of the police force. They are well trained, obedient dogs that, unlike humans, do not .
- Use of Excessive Force by Police Introduction: Police officers are given a significant amount of discretion simply due to the nature of the job. Officers are faced with many threatening situations forcing them to react quickly yet appropriately.