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Additional Information Abstract Among historians, social scientists and scholars of religion there has been increased recognition of the importance of studying Islam and Christianity in Africa not separately but rather together as lived religions in dynamic interaction over time. In this article, I trace how scholars have arrived at such a point and consider some of the challenges of conducting research on religious encounters, and particularly those associated with studying Islam and Christianity, Muslims and Christians together. I frame this discussion in terms of some of the theoretical and methodological issues at stake in advancing the study of religious encounters in Africa and draw from my own research and the work of others on the topic, particularly in West Africa, to reflect upon how this important field of inquiry has developed and what it has accomplished. If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE, click 'Authenticate'.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message Origin and creation of the state[ edit ] Information from first-hand sources on Volga Bulgaria is rather sparse. As no Rencontre muslim Bulgar records have survived, most of our information comes from contemporary ArabicRencontre muslimIndian or Russian sources.

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Some information is provided by excavations. It is believed the territory of Volga Bulgaria was originally settled by Finno-Ugric peoplesincluding Mari people. The original Bulgars were Turkic tribeswho settled north of the Black Sea.

About they founded Old Great Bulgaria which was destroyed by the Khazars in Kubrat 's son and appointed heir Batbayan Bezmer moved from the Azov region in about ADcommanded by the Kazarig Khagan Kotrag to whom he had surrendered.

They reached Idel-Ural in the eighth century, where they became the dominant population at the end of the 9th century, uniting other tribes of different origin which lived in the area. Most scholars agree that the Volga Bulgars were subject to the Khazarian Empire until the mid 10th century, when the Bulgars no longer paid tribute to them.

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Most scholars doubt, however, that the state could assert independence from the Khazars until the Khazars were annihilated by Svyatoslav of Rus in Next year an embassy returned with Ibn Fadlan as secretary. A significant number of Muslims already lived in the country.

The capital, Bolgharwas a thriving city, rivalling in size and wealth with the greatest centres of the Islamic world. Modern cities Kazan and Yelabuga were founded as Volga Bulgaria's border fortresses. Some of the Volga Bulgarian cities still have not been found, but they are mentioned in old East Slavic sources.

Some of them were ruined during and after the Golden Horde invasion. In the 11th century, the country was devastated by several raids by other Rus'.

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Then, at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, the rulers of Vladimir notably Andrew the Pious and Vsevolod IIIanxious to defend their eastern border, systematically pillaged Bulgarian cities.

Inthe Mongols returned and in five years had subjugated the whole country, which at that time was suffering from internal war[ citation needed ]. It was divided into several principalities; each of them became a vassal of the Golden Horde and received some autonomy. By the s, the Khanate of Kazan was established as the most important of these principalities.

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Other researches tie the term to the ethnic name Scythian or Saka in Persian. The remaining population mostly relocated to the northern areas[ citation needed ] territories of modern Chuvashia and Tatarstan.

Some autonomous duchies appeared in those areas. The steppe areas of Volga Bulgaria may have been settled by nomadic Kipchaks and Mongols, and the agricultural development suffered a severe decline. Some Bulgarians, primarily masters and craftsmen, were forcibly moved to Sarai and other southern cities of the Golden Horde.

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