Wisch Place of Publication: This paper explores state and municipal dog impound laws, focusing specifically on loose dog laws, dogs chasing livestock laws, and public health laws.
History[ edit ] Worldwide, the first law to regulate animal experimentation was Cruelty to Animals Actpassed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It established a central governing body that reviewed and approved all animal use in research.
After that, numerous countries in Europe adopted regulations regarding research with animals. The piece detailed the story of Pepper the Dalmatiana dog that disappeared from the yard of the Lakavage family home in Pennsylvania. It was later discovered that Pepper had been stolen by "dog-nappers," was bought by a Bronx hospital, and had died during an experimental surgical procedure.
A hearing was held on September 30,and similar legislation was sponsored in the Senate. As a result of these articles, the public lobbied Congress to pass a Federal law that would institute animal housing and care standards.
Marine mammals as a class whalesporpoisessealsand polar bearsfor the most part, found protection under the passage of the Marine Mammal Protection Act Public Law ofwhich prevented extinction or depletion from indiscriminate taking, including hunting, harassment, capture, and killing permitted takings, including for subsistence and Should animal experimentation be permitted purposes, must be accomplished humanely, with "the least degree of pain and suffering practicable to the animal".
Endangered and threatened species were also protected with the passage in of the Endangered Species Act Public Lawwhich made illegal the purchase, sale, or transportation in interstate or foreign commerce any species found to be endangered, and also closely regulated commerce in any species threatened with extinction.
Inthe Act was amended Pub. Fines were increased for those interfering with an investigation of an experimentation facility.
Those found guilty of assaulting or killing Federal inspectors responsible for such tasks also faced additional sentencing. Basic treatment was expanded to include humane and reasonable handling of the animals, and required shelter from weather and temperature extremes, proper ventilation, adequate housing, decent sanitation, and adequate veterinary care at all stages in the animal's life.
The Act was further amended in Pub. Animals were to be kept in adequately-sized traveling accommodations, and to be kept from fighting amongst one another. The definition of animal was broadened to rid the law of the possible interpretation that dogs used for hunting, security, and breeding were not included in its protection.
Under this law, it was not permitted for a single animal to be used in more than one major operative experiment, from which it was also allowed adequate time to recover as guided by a veterinarian with proper training. This amendment directed new minimum standards for the handling, housing, sanitation, feeding and other care practices.
The psychological well-being of the animals was now taken into consideration as it never had been before. One provision that stood out at this time was the requirement for the exercise of dogs and psychological well being of primates. The law also requires research facilities to be able to describe painful practices as well as implement practices that minimize pain and stress to the animals.
Another requirement made under this law was for each research facility to establish an Institutional Animal Care committee to oversee research proposals and provide oversight of animal experimentation. This section established a holding period for cats and dogs of not less than 5 days at a holding facility of the dealer, so that the animal could be adopted or recovered by their original owner before it is sold.
The provision applies to operated pounds, research facilities, or private organizations. It also requires that a written certification with the animal's background be provided to the recipient. Details should include a description of the animal, history of the animal's transfers, records, and modifications, and signatures from the dealer and recipient.
Three or more violations could result in the dealer's license being permanently revoked. Section 2 of the Animal Welfare Act 7 U. Additionally, this law expanded the regulation of animal fightingmaking it a misdemeanor to ship, exhibit, or sponsor birds for fighting purposes.
Its purpose was to strengthen prohibitions against animal fighting, and under the provisions of the AWA it made animal fighting a felony with punishment of up to 3 years in prison under Title 18 of the U.
S Code Crimes and Criminal Procedure. The act also made it a felony to trade, have knives, gaffs or other objects that aided in use of animal fighting.CHAPTER 5 PROPOLIS.
Contents - Previous - Next. Introduction. Propolis is a mixture of various amounts of beeswax and resins collected by the honeybee from plants, particularly from . Should Animal Testing Be Allowed? For many years the topic of animal testing has been under controversy for many animal activists, scientists, researchers and government.
Whether we should use animals for testing is a debatable question.
This is a highly charged and emotional debate, and most people have a strongly held opinion on this. I will do my best to present both sides below. The argument for animal testing is that it.
Free example persuasive essay on Animal Experimentation: Throughout history, animal experimentation has played an important role in leading to new discoveries and human benefit.
However, what many people tend to forget are the great numbers of animal subjects that have suffered serious harm during the process of experimentation. (a) Undue Experimentation Factors [R] There are many factors to be considered when determining whether there is sufficient evidence to support a determination that a disclosure does not satisfy the enablement requirement and whether any necessary experimentation is “undue.”.
Dec 08, · Animal experimentation A difficult issue In Dr Jay Vacanti and his team grew an ear on the back of a mouse Animal experiments are widely .